Angular 2 Services and Dependency Injection

Example service

services/my.service.ts

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';

@Injectable()
export class MyService {
  data: any = [1, 2, 3];

  getData() {
    return this.data;
  }
}

The service provider registration in the bootstrap method will make the service available globally.

main.ts

import { bootstrap } from '@angular/platform-browser-dynamic';
import { AppComponent } from 'app.component.ts';
import { MyService } from 'services/my.service';

bootstrap(AppComponent, [MyService]);

In version RC5 global service provider registration can be done inside the module file. In order to get a single instance of your service for your whole application the service should be declared in the providers list in the ngmodule of your application. app_module.ts

import { NgModule }       from '@angular/core';
import { BrowserModule  } from '@angular/platform-browser';
import { routing, appRoutingProviders } from './app-routes/app.routes';
import { HttpModule} from '@angular/http';

import { AppComponent }   from './app.component';
import { MyService } from 'services/my.service';

import { routing } from './app-resources/app-routes/app.routes';

@NgModule({
    declarations: [ AppComponent ],
    imports:      [ BrowserModule,
                    routing,
                    RouterModule,
                    HttpModule ],
    providers: [    appRoutingProviders,
                    MyService
    ],
    bootstrap:    [AppComponent],
})
export class AppModule {}

Usage in MyComponent

components/my.component.ts

Alternative approach to register application providers in application components. If we add providers at component level whenever the component is rendered it will create a new instance of the service.

import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';
import { MyService } from '../services/my.service';

@Component({
    ...
    ...
    providers:[MyService] //
 })
export class MyComponent implements OnInit {
    data: any[];
    // Creates private variable myService to use, of type MyService
    constructor(private myService: MyService) { }

    ngOnInit() {
        this.data = this.myService.getData();
    }
}

Example with Promise.resolve

services/my.service.ts

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';

@Injectable()
export class MyService {
    data: any = [1, 2, 3];

    getData() {
        return Promise.resolve(this.data);
    }
}

getData() now acts likes a REST call that creates a Promise, which gets resolved immediately. The results can be handheld inside .then() and errors can also be detected. This is good practice and convention for asynchronous methods.

components/my.component.ts

import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';
import { MyService } from '../services/my.service';

@Component({...})
export class MyComponent implements OnInit {
    data: any[];
    // Creates private variable myService to use, of type MyService
    constructor(private myService: MyService) { }

    ngOnInit() {
        // Uses an "arrow" function to set data
        this.myService.getData().then(data => this.data = data);
    }
}

Testing a Service

Given a service that can login a user:

import 'rxjs/add/operator/toPromise';

import { Http } from '@angular/http';
import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';

interface LoginCredentials {
  password: string;
  user: string;
}

@Injectable()
export class AuthService {
  constructor(private http: Http) { }

  async signIn({ user, password }: LoginCredentials) {
    const response = await this.http.post('/login', {
      password,
      user,
    }).toPromise();

    return response.json();
  }
}

It can be tested like this:

import { ConnectionBackend, Http, HttpModule, Response, ResponseOptions } from '@angular/http';
import { TestBed, async, inject } from '@angular/core/testing';

import { AuthService } from './auth.service';
import { MockBackend } from '@angular/http/testing';
import { MockConnection } from '@angular/http/testing';

describe('AuthService', () => {
  beforeEach(() => {
    TestBed.configureTestingModule({
      imports: [HttpModule],
      providers: [
        AuthService,
        Http,
        { provide: ConnectionBackend, useClass: MockBackend },
      ]
    });
  });

  it('should be created', inject([AuthService], (service: AuthService) => {
    expect(service).toBeTruthy();
  }));

  // Alternative 1
  it('should login user if right credentials are passed', async(
    inject([AuthService], async (authService) => {
      const backend: MockBackend = TestBed.get(ConnectionBackend);
      const http: Http = TestBed.get(Http);

      backend.connections.subscribe((c: MockConnection) => {
        c.mockRespond(
          new Response(
            new ResponseOptions({
              body: {
                accessToken: 'abcdef',
              },
            }),
          ),
        );
      });

      const result = await authService.signIn({ password: 'ok', user: 'bruno' });

      expect(result).toEqual({
        accessToken: 'abcdef',
      });
    }))
  );

  // Alternative 2
  it('should login user if right credentials are passed', async () => {
    const backend: MockBackend = TestBed.get(ConnectionBackend);
    const http: Http = TestBed.get(Http);

    backend.connections.subscribe((c: MockConnection) => {
      c.mockRespond(
        new Response(
          new ResponseOptions({
            body: {
              accessToken: 'abcdef',
            },
          }),
        ),
      );
    });

    const authService: AuthService = TestBed.get(AuthService);

    const result = await authService.signIn({ password: 'ok', user: 'bruno' });

    expect(result).toEqual({
      accessToken: 'abcdef',
    });
  });

  // Alternative 3
  it('should login user if right credentials are passed', async (done) => {
    const authService: AuthService = TestBed.get(AuthService);

    const backend: MockBackend = TestBed.get(ConnectionBackend);
    const http: Http = TestBed.get(Http);

    backend.connections.subscribe((c: MockConnection) => {
      c.mockRespond(
        new Response(
          new ResponseOptions({
            body: {
              accessToken: 'abcdef',
            },
          }),
        ),
      );
    });

    try {
      const result = await authService.signIn({ password: 'ok', user: 'bruno' });

      expect(result).toEqual({
        accessToken: 'abcdef',
      });

      done();
    } catch (err) {
      fail(err);
      done();
    }
  });
});