C++ containers store a collection of elements. Containers include vectors, lists, maps, etc. Using Templates, C++ containers contain collections of primitives (e.g. ints) or custom classes (e.g. MyClass).
C++ Containers Flowchart
Choosing which C++ Container to use can be tricky, so here's a simple flowchart to help decide which Container is right for the job.
This flowchart was based on Mikael Persson's post.
This little graphic in the flowchart is from Megan Hopkins