DjangoDatabase Setup

MySQL / MariaDB

Django supports MySQL 5.5 and higher.

Make sure to have some packages installed:

$ sudo apt-get install mysql-server libmysqlclient-dev
$ sudo apt-get install python-dev python-pip              # for python 2
$ sudo apt-get install python3-dev python3-pip            # for python 3

As well as one of the Python MySQL drivers (mysqlclient beeing the recommended choice for Django):

$ pip install mysqlclient    # python 2 and 3
$ pip install MySQL-python   # python 2
$ pip install pymysql        # python 2 and 3

The database encoding can not be set by Django, but needs to be configured on the database level. Look for default-character-set in my.cnf (or /etc/mysql/mariadb.conf/*.cnf ) and set the encoding:

   [mysql]
   #default-character-set = latin1    #default on some systems.
   #default-character-set = utf8mb4   #default on some systems.
   default-character-set = utf8

   ...
   [mysqld]
   #character-set-server  = utf8mb4
   #collation-server      = utf8mb4_general_ci
   character-set-server  = utf8
   collation-server      = utf8_general_ci

Database configuration for MySQL or MariaDB

#myapp/settings/settings.py

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.mysql',
        'NAME': 'DB_NAME',
        'USER': 'DB_USER',
        'PASSWORD': 'DB_PASSWORD',
        'HOST': 'localhost',   # Or an IP Address that your database is hosted on
        'PORT': '3306',
        #optional:
        'OPTIONS': {
            'charset' : 'utf8',
            'use_unicode' : True,
             'init_command': 'SET '
                'storage_engine=INNODB,'
                'character_set_connection=utf8,'
                'collation_connection=utf8_bin'
                #'sql_mode=STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,'    # see note below
                #'SESSION TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL READ COMMITTED',
        },
        'TEST_CHARSET': 'utf8',
        'TEST_COLLATION': 'utf8_general_ci',
    }
}

If you are using Oracle's MySQL connector your ENGINE line should look like this:

'ENGINE': 'mysql.connector.django',

When you create a database, make sure that to specify the encoding and collation:

CREATE DATABASE mydatabase CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_bin

From MySQL 5.7 onwards and on fresh installs of MySQL 5.6, the default value of the sql_mode option contains STRICT_TRANS_TABLES. That option escalates warnings into errors when data is truncated upon insertion. Django highly recommends activating a strict mode for MySQL to prevent data loss (either STRICT_TRANS_TABLES or STRICT_ALL_TABLES). To enable add to /etc/my.cnf sql-mode = STRICT_TRANS_TABLES

PostgreSQL

Make sure to have some packages installed:

sudo apt-get install libpq-dev
pip install psycopg2

Database settings for PostgreSQL:

#myapp/settings/settings.py

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.postgresql',
        'NAME': 'myprojectDB',
        'USER': 'myprojectuser',
        'PASSWORD': 'password',
        'HOST': '127.0.0.1',
        'PORT': '5432',
    }
}

In older versions you can also use the alias django.db.backends.postgresql_psycopg2.

When using Postresql you'll have access to some extra features:

Modelfields:

ArrayField         # A field for storing lists of data. 
HStoreField        # A field for storing mappings of strings to strings. 
JSONField          # A field for storing JSON encoded data. 
IntegerRangeField  # Stores a range of integers 
BigIntegerRangeField # Stores a big range of integers 
FloatRangeField    # Stores a range of floating point values. 
DateTimeRangeField # Stores a range of timestamps

sqlite

sqlite is the default for Django. It should not be used in production since it is usually slow.

#myapp/settings/settings.py

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3',
        'NAME': 'db/development.sqlite3',
        'USER': '',
        'PASSWORD': '',
        'HOST': '',
        'PORT': '',
    },
}

Fixtures

Fixtures are initial data for the database. The most straightforward way when you have some existing data already is to use the command dumpdata

 ./manage.py dumpdata > databasedump.json                # full database
 ./manage.py dumpdata myapp > databasedump.json          # only 1 app
 ./manage.py dumpdata myapp.mymodel > databasedump.json  # only 1 model (table)

This will create a json file which can be imported again by using

./manage.py loaddata databasedump.json

When using the loadddata without specifying a file, Django will look for a fixtures folder in your app or the list of directories provided in the FIXTURE_DIRS in settings, and use its content instead.

/myapp
   /fixtures 
        myfixtures.json
        morefixtures.xml 

Possible file formats are: JSON, XML or YAML

Fixtures JSON example:

[
  {
    "model": "myapp.person",
    "pk": 1,
    "fields": {
      "first_name": "John",
      "last_name": "Lennon"
    }
  },
  {
    "model": "myapp.person",
    "pk": 2,
    "fields": {
      "first_name": "Paul",
      "last_name": "McCartney"
    }
  }
]

Fixtures YAML example:

- model: myapp.person
  pk: 1
  fields:
    first_name: John
    last_name: Lennon
- model: myapp.person
  pk: 2
  fields:
    first_name: Paul
    last_name: McCartney

Fixtures XML example:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<django-objects version="1.0">
    <object pk="1" model="myapp.person">
        <field type="CharField" name="first_name">John</field>
        <field type="CharField" name="last_name">Lennon</field>
    </object>
    <object pk="2" model="myapp.person">
        <field type="CharField" name="first_name">Paul</field>
        <field type="CharField" name="last_name">McCartney</field>
    </object>
</django-objects>

Django Cassandra Engine

  • Install pip : $ pip install django-cassandra-engine
  • Add Getting Started to INSTALLED_APPS in your settings.py file: INSTALLED_APPS = ['django_cassandra_engine']
  • Cange DATABASES setting Standart:

Standart

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django_cassandra_engine',
        'NAME': 'db',
        'TEST_NAME': 'test_db',
        'HOST': 'db1.example.com,db2.example.com',
        'OPTIONS': {
            'replication': {
                'strategy_class': 'SimpleStrategy',
                'replication_factor': 1
            }
        }
    }
}

Cassandra create new user cqlsh :

DATABASES = {
'default': {
    'ENGINE': 'django_cassandra_engine',
    'NAME': 'db',
    'TEST_NAME': 'test_db',
    'USER_NAME'='cassandradb',
    'PASSWORD'= '123cassandra',
    'HOST': 'db1.example.com,db2.example.com',
    'OPTIONS': {
        'replication': {
            'strategy_class': 'SimpleStrategy',
            'replication_factor': 1
        }
    }
}

}