Gocgo

Calling C Function From Go

Cgo enables the creation of Go packages that call C code.
To use cgo write normal Go code that imports a pseudo-package "C". The Go code can then refer to types such as C.int, or functions such as C.Add.
The import of "C" is immediately preceded by a comment, that comment, called the preamble, is used as a header when compiling the C parts of the package.
Note that there must be no blank lines in between the cgo comment and the import statement.
Note that import "C" can not grouped with other imports into a parenthesized, "factored" import statement. You must write multiple import statements, like:

import "C"
import "fmt"

And it is good style to use the factored import statement, for other imports, like:

import "C"
import (
    "fmt"
    "math"
)

Simple example using cgo:

package main

//int Add(int a, int b){
//    return a+b;
//}
import "C"
import "fmt"

func main() {
    a := C.int(10)
    b := C.int(20)
    c := C.Add(a, b)
    fmt.Println(c) // 30
}

Then go build, and run it, output:

30

To build cgo packages, just use go build or go install as usual. The go tool recognizes the special "C" import and automatically uses cgo for those files.

Wire C and Go code in all directions

Calling C code from Go

package main

/*
// Everything in comments above the import "C" is C code and will be compiles with the GCC. 
// Make sure you have a GCC installed.

int addInC(int a, int b) {
    return a + b;
}
 */
import "C"
import "fmt"

func main() {
       a := 3
       b := 5
       
       c := C.addInC(C.int(a), C.int(b))

       fmt.Println("Add in C:", a, "+", b, "=", int(c))
}

Calling Go code from C

package main

/*
static inline int multiplyInGo(int a, int b) {
    return go_multiply(a, b);
}
 */
import "C"
import (
       "fmt"
)

func main() {
       a := 3
       b := 5
       
       c := C.multiplyInGo(C.int(a), C.int(b))

       fmt.Println("multiplyInGo:", a, "*", b, "=", int(c))
}

//export go_multiply
func go_multiply(a C.int, b C.int) C.int {
       return a * b
}

Dealing with Function pointers

package main

/*
int go_multiply(int a, int b);

typedef int (*multiply_f)(int a, int b);
multiply_f multiply;

static inline init() {
    multiply = go_multiply;
}

static inline int multiplyWithFp(int a, int b) {
    return multiply(a, b);
}
 */
import "C"
import (
       "fmt"
)

func main() {
       a := 3
       b := 5
       C.init(); // OR:
       C.multiply = C.multiply_f(go_multiply);

       c := C.multiplyWithFp(C.int(a), C.int(b))

       fmt.Println("multiplyInGo:", a, "+", b, "=", int(c))
}

//export go_multiply
func go_multiply(a C.int, b C.int) C.int {
       return a * b
}

Convert Types, Access Structs and Pointer Arithmetic

From the official Go documentation:

// Go string to C string
// The C string is allocated in the C heap using malloc.
// It is the caller's responsibility to arrange for it to be
// freed, such as by calling C.free (be sure to include stdlib.h
// if C.free is needed).
func C.CString(string) *C.char

// Go []byte slice to C array
// The C array is allocated in the C heap using malloc.
// It is the caller's responsibility to arrange for it to be
// freed, such as by calling C.free (be sure to include stdlib.h
// if C.free is needed).
func C.CBytes([]byte) unsafe.Pointer

// C string to Go string
func C.GoString(*C.char) string

// C data with explicit length to Go string
func C.GoStringN(*C.char, C.int) string

// C data with explicit length to Go []byte
func C.GoBytes(unsafe.Pointer, C.int) []byte

How to use it:

func go_handleData(data *C.uint8_t, length C.uint8_t) []byte {
       return C.GoBytes(unsafe.Pointer(data), C.int(length))
}

// ...

goByteSlice := []byte {1, 2, 3}
goUnsafePointer := C.CBytes(goByteSlice)
cPointer := (*C.uint8_t)(goUnsafePointer)

// ...

func getPayload(packet *C.packet_t) []byte {
       dataPtr := unsafe.Pointer(packet.data)
       // Lets assume a 2 byte header before the payload.
       payload := C.GoBytes(unsafe.Pointer(uintptr(dataPtr)+2), C.int(packet.dataLength-2))
       return payload
}