- x -> [body]
- (x, y) -> [body]
- (xs...) -> [body]

0.4.0

In older versions of Julia, closures and anonymous functions had a runtime performance penalty. This penalty has been eliminated in 0.5.

We can define a function to perform function composition using anonymous function syntax:

```
f ∘ g = x -> f(g(x))
```

Note that this definition is equivalent to each of the following definitions:

```
∘(f, g) = x -> f(g(x))
```

or

```
function ∘(f, g)
x -> f(g(x))
end
```

recalling that in Julia, `f ∘ g`

is just syntax sugar for `∘(f, g)`

.

We can see that this function composes correctly:

```
julia> double(x) = 2x
double (generic function with 1 method)
julia> triple(x) = 3x
triple (generic function with 1 method)
julia> const sextuple = double ∘ triple
(::#17) (generic function with 1 method)
julia> sextuple(1.5)
9.0
```

0.5.0

In version v0.5, this definition is very performant. We can look into the LLVM code generated:

```
julia> @code_llvm sextuple(1)
define i64 @"julia_#17_71238"(i64) #0 {
top:
%1 = mul i64 %0, 6
ret i64 %1
}
```

It is clear that the two multiplications have been folded into a single multiplication, and that this function is as efficient as is possible.

How does this higher-order function work? It creates a so-called closure, which consists of not just its code, but also keeps track of certain variables from its scope. All functions in Julia that are not created at top-level scope are closures.

0.5.0

One can inspect the variables closed over through the fields of the closure. For instance, we see that:

```
julia> (sin ∘ cos).f
sin (generic function with 10 methods)
julia> (sin ∘ cos).g
cos (generic function with 10 methods)
```

One application of closures is to partially apply a function; that is, provide some arguments now and create a function that takes the remaining arguments. Currying is a specific form of partial application.

Let's start with the simple function `curry(f, x)`

that will provide the first argument to a function, and expect additional arguments later. The definition is fairly straightforward:

```
curry(f, x) = (xs...) -> f(x, xs...)
```

Once again, we use anonymous function syntax, this time in combination with variadic argument syntax.

We can implement some basic functions in tacit (or point-free) style using this `curry`

function.

```
julia> const double = curry(*, 2)
(::#19) (generic function with 1 method)
julia> double(10)
20
julia> const simon_says = curry(println, "Simon: ")
(::#19) (generic function with 1 method)
julia> simon_says("How are you?")
Simon: How are you?
```

Functions maintain the generism expected:

```
julia> simon_says("I have ", 3, " arguments.")
Simon: I have 3 arguments.
julia> double([1, 2, 3])
3-element Array{Int64,1}:
2
4
6
```

Functions are an important part of Julia programming. They can be defined directly within modules, in which case the functions are referred to as *top-level*. But functions can also be defined within other functions. Such functions are called "closures".

Closures capture the variables in their outer function. A top-level function can only use global variables from their module, function parameters, or local variables:

```
x = 0 # global
function toplevel(y)
println("x = ", x, " is a global variable")
println("y = ", y, " is a parameter")
z = 2
println("z = ", z, " is a local variable")
end
```

A closure, on the other hand, can use all those in addition to variables from outer functions that it captures:

```
x = 0 # global
function toplevel(y)
println("x = ", x, " is a global variable")
println("y = ", y, " is a parameter")
z = 2
println("z = ", z, " is a local variable")
function closure(v)
println("v = ", v, " is a parameter")
w = 3
println("w = ", w, " is a local variable")
println("x = ", x, " is a global variable")
println("y = ", y, " is a closed variable (a parameter of the outer function)")
println("z = ", z, " is a closed variable (a local of the outer function)")
end
end
```

If we run `c = toplevel(10)`

, we see the result is

```
julia> c = toplevel(10)
x = 0 is a global variable
y = 10 is a parameter
z = 2 is a local variable
(::closure) (generic function with 1 method)
```

Note that the tail expression of this function is a function in itself; that is, a closure. We can call the closure `c`

like it was any other function:

```
julia> c(11)
v = 11 is a parameter
w = 3 is a local variable
x = 0 is a global variable
y = 10 is a closed variable (a parameter of the outer function)
z = 2 is a closed variable (a local of the outer function)
```

Note that `c`

still has access to the variables `y`

and `z`

from the `toplevel`

call — even though `toplevel`

has already returned! Each closure, even those returned by the same function, closes over different variables. We can call `toplevel`

again

```
julia> d = toplevel(20)
x = 0 is a global variable
y = 20 is a parameter
z = 2 is a local variable
(::closure) (generic function with 1 method)
julia> d(22)
v = 22 is a parameter
w = 3 is a local variable
x = 0 is a global variable
y = 20 is a closed variable (a parameter of the outer function)
z = 2 is a closed variable (a local of the outer function)
julia> c(22)
v = 22 is a parameter
w = 3 is a local variable
x = 0 is a global variable
y = 10 is a closed variable (a parameter of the outer function)
z = 2 is a closed variable (a local of the outer function)
```

Note that despite `d`

and `c`

having the same code, and being passed the same arguments, their output is different. They are distinct closures.