Oracle DatabaseReal Application Security

Introduction

Oracle Real Application Security was introduced in Oracle 12c. It summarize many Security Topics like User-Role-Model, Access Control, Application vs. Database, End-User-Security or Row- and Column Level Security

Application

To associate an Application with something in the Database there are three main parts:

Application Privilege: An Application Privilege describes Privileges like SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, ... Application Privileges can be summarized as an Aggregate Privilege.

XS$PRIVILEGE(
    name=>'privilege_name'
    [, implied_priv_list=>XS$NAME_LIST('"SELECT"', '"INSERT"', '"UPDATE"', '"DELETE"')]
)

XS$PRIVILEGE_LIST(
    XS$PRIVILEGE(...),
    XS$PRIVILEGE(...),
    ...
);

Application User:

Simple Application User:

BEGIN 
    SYS.XS_PRINCIPAL.CREATE_USER('user_name'); 
END;

Direct Login Application User:

BEGIN 
    SYS.XS_PRINCIPAL.CREATE_USER(name => 'user_name', schema => 'schema_name');
END;

BEGIN 
    SYS.XS_PRINCIPAL.SET_PASSWORD('user_name', 'password'); 
END;
CREATE PROFILE prof LIMIT 
    PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME 1/4440 
    PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX 3 
    PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION Verify_Pass;

BEGIN 
    SYS.XS_PRINCIPAL.SET_PROFILE('user_name', 'prof'); 
END;

BEGIN 
    SYS.XS_PRINCIPAL.GRANT_ROLES('user_name', 'XSONNCENT');
END;

(optional:)

BEGIN 
    SYS.XS_PRINCIPAL.SET_VERIFIER('user_name', '6DFF060084ECE67F', XS_PRINCIPAL.XS_SHA512“); 
END;

Application Role:

Regular Application Role:

DECLARE
    st_date TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE;
    ed_date TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE;
BEGIN
    st_date := SYSTIMESTAMP;
    ed_date := TO_TIMESTAMP_TZ('2013-06-18 11:00:00 -5:00','YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS');
    SYS.XS_PRINCIPAL.CREATE_ROLE
        (name => 'app_regular_role',
        enabled => TRUE,
        start_date => st_date,
        end_date => ed_date);
END;

Dynamic Application Role: (gets enabled dynamical based on the authenatication state)

BEGIN
    SYS.XS_PRINCIPAL.CREATE_DYNAMIC_ROLE
        (name => 'app_dynamic_role',
        duration => 40,
        scope => XS_PRINCIPAL.SESSION_SCOPE);
END;

Predefined Application Roles:

Regular:

  • XSPUBLIC
  • XSBYPASS
  • XSSESSIONADMIN
  • XSNAMESPACEADMIN
  • XSPROVISIONER
  • XSCACHEADMIN
  • XSDISPATCHER

Dynamic: (depended on the authentication state of application user)

  • DBMS_AUTH: (direct-logon or other database authentication method)
  • EXTERNAL_DBMS_AUTH: (direct-logon or other database authentication method and user is external)
  • DBMS_PASSWD: (direct-logon with password)
  • MIDTIER_AUTH: (authentication through middle tier application)
  • XSAUTHENTICATED: (direct or middle tier application)
  • XSSWITCH: (user switched from proxy user to application user)