Logical is a mode (and an implicit class) for vectors.
NA are the only values for logical vectors; and all three are reserved words.
F can be shorthand for
FALSE in a clean R session, but neither
F are reserved, so assignment of non-default values to those names can set users up for difficulties.
There are two sorts of logical operators: those that accept and return vectors of any length (elementwise operators:
xor()) and those that only evaluate the first element in each argument (
||). The second sort is primarily used as the
cond argument to the
|&||element-wise (vectorized) and||x & y|
|&&||and (single element only)||x && y|
||||element-wise (vectorized) or||x | y|
|||||or (single element only)||x || y|
|xor||element-wise (vectorized) exclusive OR||xor(x,y)|
Note that the
|| operator evaluates the left condition and if the left condition is TRUE the right side is never evaluated. This can save time if the first is the result of a complex operation. The
&& operator will likewise return FALSE without evaluation of the second argument when the first element of the first argument is FALSE.
> x <- 5 > x > 6 || stop("X is too small") Error: X is too small > x > 3 || stop("X is too small")  TRUE
To check whether a value is a logical you can use the
To coerce a variable to a logical use the
> x <- 2 > z <- x > 4 > z  FALSE > class(x)  "numeric" > as.logical(2)  TRUE
as.numeric() to a logical, a double will be returned.
NA is a logical value and a logical operator with an
NA will return
NA if the outcome is ambiguous.
See Missing values for details.
> TRUE & NA  NA > FALSE & NA  FALSE > TRUE || NA  TRUE > FALSE || NA  NA