• fn function<'a>(x: &'a Type)
  • struct Struct<'a> { x: &'a Type }
  • enum Enum<'a> { Variant(&'a Type) }
  • impl<'a> Struct<'a> { fn x<'a>(&self) -> &'a Type { self.x } }
  • impl<'a> Trait<'a> for Type
  • impl<'a> Trait for Type<'a>
  • fn function<F>(f: F) where for<'a> F: FnOnce(&'a Type)
  • struct Struct<F> where for<'a> F: FnOnce(&'a Type) { x: F }
  • enum Enum<F> where for<'a> F: FnOnce(&'a Type) { Variant(F) }
  • impl<F> Struct<F> where for<'a> F: FnOnce(&'a Type) { fn x(&self) -> &F { &self.x } }


  • All references in Rust have a lifetime, even if they are not explicitly annotated. The compiler is capable of implicitly assigning lifetimes.
  • The 'static lifetime is assigned to references that are stored in the program binary and will be valid throughout its entire execution. This lifetime is most notably assigned to string literals, which have the type &'static str.

Function Parameters (Input Lifetimes)

fn foo<'a>(x: &'a u32) {
    // ...

This specifies that foo has lifetime 'a, and the parameter x must have a lifetime of at least 'a. Function lifetimes are usually omitted through lifetime elision:

fn foo(x: &u32) {
    // ...

In the case that a function takes multiple references as parameters and returns a reference, the compiler cannot infer the lifetime of result through lifetime elision.

error[E0106]: missing lifetime specifier
1 | fn foo(bar: &str, baz: &str) -> &i32 {
  |                                 ^ expected lifetime parameter

Instead, the lifetime parameters should be explicitly specified.

// Return value of `foo` is valid as long as `bar` and `baz` are alive.
fn foo<'a>(bar: &'a str, baz: &'a str) -> &'a i32 {

Functions can take multiple lifetime parameters too.

// Return value is valid for the scope of `bar`
fn foo<'a, 'b>(bar: &'a str, baz: &'b str) -> &'a i32 {

Struct Fields

struct Struct<'a> {
    x: &'a u32,

This specifies that any given instance of Struct has lifetime 'a, and the &u32 stored in x must have a lifetime of at least 'a.

Impl Blocks

impl<'a> Type<'a> {
    fn my_function(&self) -> &'a u32 {

This specifies that Type has lifetime 'a, and that the reference returned by my_function() may no longer be valid after 'a ends because the Type no longer exists to hold self.x.

Higher-Rank Trait Bounds

fn copy_if<F>(slice: &[i32], pred: F) -> Vec<i32>
    where for<'a> F: Fn(&'a i32) -> bool
    let mut result = vec![];
    for &element in slice {
        if pred(&element) {

This specifies that the reference on i32 in the Fn trait bound can have any lifetime.

The following does not work:

fn wrong_copy_if<'a, F>(slice: &[i32], pred: F) -> Vec<i32>
    where F: Fn(&'a i32) -> bool
{                                   // <----------------+
    let mut result = vec![];        //       'a scope   |
    for &element in slice {         // <--------+       |
        if pred(&element) {         //          |       |
            result.push(element);   // element's|       |
        }                           //   scope  |       |
    }                               // <--------+       |
    result                          //                  |
}                                   // <----------------+

The compiler gives the following error:

error: `element` does not live long enough
if pred(&element) {         //          |       |

because the element local variable does not live as long as the 'a lifetime (as we can see from the code's comments).

The lifetime cannot be declared at the function level, because we need another lifetime. That's why we used for<'a>: to specify that the reference can be valid for any lifetime (hence a smaller lifetime can be used).

Higher-Rank trait bounds can also be used on structs:

struct Window<F>
    where for<'a> F: FnOnce(&'a Window<F>)
    on_close: F,

as well as on other items.

Higher-Rank trait bounds are most commonly used with the Fn* traits.

For these examples, the lifetime elision works fine so we do not have to specify the lifetimes.