Scala LanguageOption Class


  • class Some[+T](value: T) extends Option[T]

  • object None extends Option[Nothing]

  • Option[T](value: T)

    Constructor to create either a Some(value) or None as appropriate for the value provided.

Options as Collections

Options have some useful higher-order functions that can be easily understood by viewing options as collections with zero or one items - where None behaves like the empty collection, and Some(x) behaves like a collection with a single item, x.

val option: Option[String] = ??? // None if option is None, Some(s.trim) if Some(s)
option.foreach(println) // prints the string if it exists, does nothing otherwise
option.forall(_.length > 4) // true if None or if Some(s) and s.length > 4
option.exists(_.length > 4) // true if Some(s) and s.length > 4
option.toList // returns an actual list

Using Option Instead of Null

In Java (and other languages), using null is a common way of indicating that there is no value attached to a reference variable. In Scala, using Option is preferred over using null. Option wraps values that might be null.

None is a subclass of Option wrapping a null reference. Some is a subclass of Option wrapping a non-null reference.

Wrapping a reference is easy:

val nothing = Option(null) // None
val something = Option("Aren't options cool?") // Some("Aren't options cool?")

This is typical code when calling a Java library that might return a null reference:

val resource = Option(JavaLib.getResource())
// if null, then resource = None
// else resource = Some(resource)

If getResource() returns a null value, resource will be a None object. Otherwise it will be a Some(resource) object. The preferred way to handle an Option is using higher order functions available within the Option type. For example if you want to check if your value is not None (similar to checking if value == null), you would use the isDefined function:

val resource: Option[Resource] = Option(JavaLib.getResource())
if (resource.isDefined) {  // resource is `Some(_)` type
  val r: Resource = resource.get

Similarly, to check for a null reference you can do this:

val resource: Option[Resource] = Option(JavaLib.getResource())
if (resource.isEmpty) { // resource is `None` type.
  System.out.println("Resource is empty! Cannot connect.")

It is preferred that you treat conditional execution on the wrapped value of an Option (without using the 'exceptional' Option.get method) by treating the Option as a monad and using foreach:

val resource: Option[Resource] = Option(JavaLib.getResource())
resource foreach (r => r.connect())
// if r is defined, then r.connect() is run
// if r is empty, then it does nothing

If a Resource instance is required (versus an Option[Resource] instance), you can still use Option to protect against null values. Here the getOrElse method provides a default value:

lazy val defaultResource = new Resource()
val resource: Resource = Option(JavaLib.getResource()).getOrElse(defaultResource)

Java code won't readily handle Scala's Option, so when passing values to Java code it is good form to unwrap an Option, passing null or a sensible default where appropriate:

val resource: Option[Resource] = ???
JavaLib.sendResource(resource.getOrElse(defaultResource)) // 


An Option is a data structure that contains either a single value, or no value at all. An Option can be thought of as collections of zero or one elements.

Option is an abstract class with two children: Some and None.

Some contains a single value, and None contains no value.

Option is useful in expressions that would otherwise use null to represent the lack of a concrete value. This protects against a NullPointerException, and allows the composition of many expressions that might not return a value using combinators such as Map, FlatMap, etc.

Example with Map

val countries = Map(
  "USA" -> "Washington",
  "UK" -> "London",
  "Germany" -> "Berlin",
  "Netherlands" -> "Amsterdam",
  "Japan" -> "Tokyo"
println(countries.get("USA")) // Some(Washington)
println(countries.get("France")) // None
println(countries.get("USA").get) // Washington
println(countries.get("France").get) // Error: NoSuchElementException
println(countries.get("USA").getOrElse("Nope")) // Washington
println(countries.get("France").getOrElse("Nope")) // Nope

Option[A] is sealed and thus cannot be extended. Therefore it's semantics are stable and can be relied on.

Options in for comprehensions

Options have a flatMap method. This means they can be used in a for comprehension. In this way we can lift regular functions to work on Options without having to redefine them.

val firstOption: Option[Int] = Option(1)
val secondOption: Option[Int] = Option(2)

val myResult = for {
  firstValue <- firstOption
  secondValue <- secondOption
} yield firstValue + secondValue
// myResult: Option[Int] = Some(3)

When one of the values is a None the ending result of the calculation will be None as well.

val firstOption: Option[Int] = Option(1)
val secondOption: Option[Int] = None

val myResult = for {
  firstValue <- firstOption
  secondValue <- secondOption
} yield firstValue + secondValue
// myResult: Option[Int] = None

Note: this pattern extends more generally for concepts called Monads. (More information should be available on pages relating to for comprehensions and Monads)

In general it is not possible to mix different monads in a for comprehension. But since Option can be easily converted to an Iterable, we can easily mix Options and Iterables by calling the .toIterable method.

val option: Option[Int] = Option(1)
val iterable: Iterable[Int] = Iterable(2, 3, 4, 5)

// does NOT compile since we cannot mix Monads in a for comprehension
// val myResult = for {
//   optionValue <- option
//   iterableValue <- iterable
//} yield optionValue + iterableValue

// It does compile when adding a .toIterable on the option
val myResult = for {
  optionValue <- option.toIterable
  iterableValue <- iterable
} yield optionValue + iterableValue
// myResult: Iterable[Int] = List(2, 3, 4, 5)

A small note: if we had defined our for comprehension the other way around the for comprehension would compile since our option would be converted implicitly. For that reason it is useful to always add this .toIterable (or corresponding function depending on which collection you are using) for consistency.