selenium-webdriverUsing @FindBy annotations in Java


  • CLASS_NAME: @FindBy(className = "classname")
  • CSS: @FindBy(css = "css")
  • ID: @FindBy(id = "id")
  • ID_OR_NAME: @FindBy(how = How.ID_OR_NAME, using ="idOrName")
  • LINK_TEXT: @FindBy(linkText= "text")
  • NAME: @FindBy(name= "name")
  • PARTIAL_LINK_TEXT: @FindBy(partialLinkText= "text")
  • TAG_NAME: @FindBy(tagName="tagname")
  • XPATH: @FindBy(xpath="xpath")


Note that there are two ways of using the annotation. Examples:

@FindBy(id = "id")


@FindBy(how = How.ID, using  ="id")

are equal and both look for element by its ID. In case of ID_OR_NAME you can only use

@FindBy(how = How.ID_OR_NAME, using ="idOrName")

PageFactory.initElements() must be used after page object instantiation to find elements marked with @FindBy annotation.

Basic example

Assume that we are using Page object model. Page Object class:

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver;

public class LoginPage {
    @FindBy(id="loginInput") //method used to find WebElement, in that case Id
    WebElement loginTextbox;
    WebElement passwordTextBox;
    //xpath example:
    @FindBy(xpath="//form[@id='loginForm']/button(contains(., 'Login')") 
    WebElement loginButton;
    public void login(String username, String password){
        // login method prepared according to Page Object Pattern
        // because WebElements were declared with @FindBy, we can use them without
        // driver.find() method

And Tests class:

class Tests{
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
        LoginPage loginPage = new LoginPage();

        //PageFactory is used to find elements with @FindBy specified
        PageFactory.initElements(driver, loginPage);
        loginPage.login("user", "pass");

There are few methods to find WebElements using @FindBy - check Syntax section.