SELECT statements return sets of results from data collections like tables or views.
SELECT statements can be used with various other clauses like
GROUP BY, or
ORDER BY to further refine the desired results.
Select all columns from some table (system table in this case):
SELECT * FROM sys.objects
Or, select just some specific columns:
SELECT object_id, name, type, create_date FROM sys.objects
WHERE clause filters only those rows that satisfy some condition:
SELECT * FROM sys.objects WHERE type = 'IT'
ORDER BY clause sorts rows in the returned result set by some column or expression:
SELECT * FROM sys.objects ORDER BY create_date
GROUP BY clause groups rows by some value:
SELECT type, count(*) as c FROM sys.objects GROUP BY type
You can apply some function on each group (aggregate function) to calculate sum or count of the records in the group.
HAVING clause removes groups that do not satisfy condition:
SELECT type, count(*) as c FROM sys.objects GROUP BY type HAVING count(*) < 10
TOP clause returns only first N rows in the result:
SELECT TOP 10 * FROM sys.objects
OFFSET FETCH clause is more advanced version of TOP. It enables you to skip N1 rows and take next N2 rows:
SELECT * FROM sys.objects ORDER BY object_id OFFSET 50 ROWS FETCH NEXT 10 ROWS ONLY
You can use OFFSET without fetch to just skip first 50 rows:
SELECT * FROM sys.objects ORDER BY object_id OFFSET 50 ROWS
SELECT statement can be executed without FROM clause:
declare @var int = 17; SELECT @var as c1, @var + 2 as c2, 'third' as c3
In this case, one row with values/results of expressions are returned.