NULL in SQL, as well as programming in general, means literally "nothing". In SQL, it is easier to understand as "the absence of any value".
It is important to distinguish it from seemingly empty values, such as the empty string
'' or the number
0, neither of which are actually
It is also important to be careful not to enclose
NULL in quotes, like
'NULL', which is allowed in columns that accept text, but is not
NULL and can cause errors and incorrect data sets.
The syntax for filtering for
NULL (i.e. the absence of a value) in
WHERE blocks is slightly different than filtering for specific values.
SELECT * FROM Employees WHERE ManagerId IS NULL ; SELECT * FROM Employees WHERE ManagerId IS NOT NULL ;
Note that because
NULL is not equal to anything, not even to itself, using equality operators
= NULL or
<> NULL (or
!= NULL) will always yield the truth value of
UNKNOWN which will be rejected by
WHERE filters all rows that the condition is
UKNOWN and keeps only rows that the condition is
When creating tables it is possible to declare a column as nullable or non-nullable.
CREATE TABLE MyTable ( MyCol1 INT NOT NULL, -- non-nullable MyCol2 INT NULL -- nullable ) ;
By default every column (except those in primary key constraint) is nullable unless we explicitly set
NOT NULL constraint.
Attempting to assign
NULL to a non-nullable column will result in an error.
INSERT INTO MyTable (MyCol1, MyCol2) VALUES (1, NULL) ; -- works fine INSERT INTO MyTable (MyCol1, MyCol2) VALUES (NULL, 2) ; -- cannot insert -- the value NULL into column 'MyCol1', table 'MyTable'; -- column does not allow nulls. INSERT fails.
Setting a field to
NULL works exactly like with any other value:
UPDATE Employees SET ManagerId = NULL WHERE Id = 4
For example inserting an employee with no phone number and no manager into the Employees example table:
INSERT INTO Employees (Id, FName, LName, PhoneNumber, ManagerId, DepartmentId, Salary, HireDate) VALUES (5, 'Jane', 'Doe', NULL, NULL, 2, 800, '2016-07-22') ;