Algorithms are a backbone to computing. Making a choice of which algorithm to use in which situation distinguishes an average from good programmer. With that in mind, here are definitions and code examples of some of the basic algorithms out there.
Insertion sort is one of the more basic algorithms in computer science. The insertion sort ranks elements by iterating through a collection and positions elements based on their value. The set is divided into sorted and unsorted halves and repeats until all elements are sorted. Insertion sort has complexity of O(n2). You can put it in an extension, like in an example below, or you can create a method for it.
extension Array where Element: Comparable {
func insertionSort() -> Array<Element> {
//check for trivial case
guard self.count > 1 else {
return self
}
//mutated copy
var output: Array<Element> = self
for primaryindex in 0..<output.count {
let key = output[primaryindex]
var secondaryindex = primaryindex
while secondaryindex > -1 {
if key < output[secondaryindex] {
//move to correct position
output.remove(at: secondaryindex + 1)
output.insert(key, at: secondaryindex)
}
secondaryindex -= 1
}
}
return output
}
}
Bubble Sort
This is a simple sorting algorithm that repeatedly steps through the list to be sorted, compares each pair of adjacent items and swaps them if they are in the wrong order. The pass through the list is repeated until no swaps are needed. Although the algorithm is simple, it is too slow and impractical for most problems. It has complexity of O(n2) but it is considered slower than insertion sort.
extension Array where Element: Comparable {
func bubbleSort() -> Array<Element> {
//check for trivial case
guard self.count > 1 else {
return self
}
//mutated copy
var output: Array<Element> = self
for primaryIndex in 0..<self.count {
let passes = (output.count - 1) - primaryIndex
//"half-open" range operator
for secondaryIndex in 0..<passes {
let key = output[secondaryIndex]
//compare / swap positions
if (key > output[secondaryIndex + 1]) {
swap(&output[secondaryIndex], &output[secondaryIndex + 1])
}
}
}
return output
}
}
Insertion sort
Insertion sort is one of the more basic algorithms in computer science. The insertion sort ranks elements by iterating through a collection and positions elements based on their value. The set is divided into sorted and unsorted halves and repeats until all elements are sorted. Insertion sort has complexity of O(n2). You can put it in an extension, like in an example below, or you can create a method for it.
extension Array where Element: Comparable {
func insertionSort() -> Array<Element> {
//check for trivial case
guard self.count > 1 else {
return self
}
//mutated copy
var output: Array<Element> = self
for primaryindex in 0..<output.count {
let key = output[primaryindex]
var secondaryindex = primaryindex
while secondaryindex > -1 {
if key < output[secondaryindex] {
//move to correct position
output.remove(at: secondaryindex + 1)
output.insert(key, at: secondaryindex)
}
secondaryindex -= 1
}
}
return output
}
}
Selection sort
Selection sort is noted for its simplicity. It starts with the first element in the array, saving it's value as a minimum value (or maximum, depending on sorting order). It then itterates through the array, and replaces the min value with any other value lesser then min it finds on the way. That min value is then placed at the leftmost part of the array and the process is repeated, from the next index, until the end of the array. Selection sort has complexity of O(n2) but it is considered slower than it's counterpart - Selection sort.
func selectionSort() -> Array { //check for trivial case guard self.count > 1 else { return self }
//mutated copy
var output: Array<Element> = self
for primaryindex in 0..<output.count {
var minimum = primaryindex
var secondaryindex = primaryindex + 1
while secondaryindex < output.count {
//store lowest value as minimum
if output[minimum] > output[secondaryindex] {
minimum = secondaryindex
}
secondaryindex += 1
}
//swap minimum value with array iteration
if primaryindex != minimum {
swap(&output[primaryindex], &output[minimum])
}
}
return output
}
Quick Sort - O(n log n) complexity time
Quicksort is one of the advanced algorithms. It features a time complexity of O(n log n) and applies a divide & conquer strategy. This combination results in advanced algorithmic performance. Quicksort first divides a large array into two smaller sub-arrays: the low elements and the high elements. Quicksort can then recursively sort the sub-arrays.
The steps are:
Pick an element, called a pivot, from the array.
Reorder the array so that all elements with values less than the pivot come before the pivot, while all elements with values greater than the pivot come after it (equal values can go either way). After this partitioning, the pivot is in its final position. This is called the partition operation.
Recursively apply the above steps to the sub-array of elements with smaller values and separately to the sub-array of elements with greater values.
mutating func quickSort() -> Array {
func qSort(start startIndex: Int, _ pivot: Int) {
if (startIndex < pivot) {
let iPivot = qPartition(start: startIndex, pivot)
qSort(start: startIndex, iPivot - 1)
qSort(start: iPivot + 1, pivot)
}
}
qSort(start: 0, self.endIndex - 1)
return self
}
mutating func qPartition(start startIndex: Int, _ pivot: Int) -> Int {
var wallIndex: Int = startIndex
//compare range with pivot
for currentIndex in wallIndex..<pivot {
if self[currentIndex] <= self[pivot] {
if wallIndex != currentIndex {
swap(&self[currentIndex], &self[wallIndex])
}
//advance wall
wallIndex += 1
}
}
//move pivot to final position
if wallIndex != pivot {
swap(&self[wallIndex], &self[pivot])
}
return wallIndex
}
Selection sort is noted for its simplicity. It starts with the first element in the array, saving it's value as a minimum value (or maximum, depending on sorting order). It then itterates through the array, and replaces the min value with any other value lesser then min it finds on the way. That min value is then placed at the leftmost part of the array and the process is repeated, from the next index, until the end of the array. Selection sort has complexity of O(n2) but it is considered slower than it's counterpart - Selection sort.
func selectionSort() -> Array<Element> {
//check for trivial case
guard self.count > 1 else {
return self
}
//mutated copy
var output: Array<Element> = self
for primaryindex in 0..<output.count {
var minimum = primaryindex
var secondaryindex = primaryindex + 1
while secondaryindex < output.count {
//store lowest value as minimum
if output[minimum] > output[secondaryindex] {
minimum = secondaryindex
}
secondaryindex += 1
}
//swap minimum value with array iteration
if primaryindex != minimum {
swap(&output[primaryindex], &output[minimum])
}
}
return output
}
Since we have many different algorithms to choose from, when we want to sort an array, we need to know which one will do it's job. So we need some method of measuring algoritm's speed and reliability. That's where Asymptotic analysis kicks in. Asymptotic analysis is the process of describing the efficiency of algorithms as their input size (n) grows. In computer science, asymptotics are usually expressed in a common format known as Big O Notation.
Quicksort is one of the advanced algorithms. It features a time complexity of O(n log n) and applies a divide & conquer strategy. This combination results in advanced algorithmic performance. Quicksort first divides a large array into two smaller sub-arrays: the low elements and the high elements. Quicksort can then recursively sort the sub-arrays.
The steps are:
Pick an element, called a pivot, from the array.
Reorder the array so that all elements with values less than the pivot come before the pivot, while all elements with values greater than the pivot come after it (equal values can go either way). After this partitioning, the pivot is in its final position. This is called the partition operation.
Recursively apply the above steps to the sub-array of elements with smaller values and separately to the sub-array of elements with greater values.
mutating func quickSort() -> Array<Element> {
func qSort(start startIndex: Int, _ pivot: Int) {
if (startIndex < pivot) {
let iPivot = qPartition(start: startIndex, pivot)
qSort(start: startIndex, iPivot - 1)
qSort(start: iPivot + 1, pivot)
}
}
qSort(start: 0, self.endIndex - 1)
return self
}
mutating func qPartition(start startIndex: Int, _ pivot: Int) -> Int {
var wallIndex: Int = startIndex
//compare range with pivot
for currentIndex in wallIndex..<pivot {
if self[currentIndex] <= self[pivot] {
if wallIndex != currentIndex {
swap(&self[currentIndex], &self[wallIndex])
}
//advance wall
wallIndex += 1
}
}
//move pivot to final position
if wallIndex != pivot {
swap(&self[wallIndex], &self[pivot])
}
return wallIndex
}
In computer science, a graph is an abstract data type that is meant to implement the undirected graph and directed graph concepts from mathematics. A graph data structure consists of a finite (and possibly mutable) set of vertices or nodes or points, together with a set of unordered pairs of these vertices for an undirected graph or a set of ordered pairs for a directed graph. These pairs are known as edges, arcs, or lines for an undirected graph and as arrows, directed edges, directed arcs, or directed lines for a directed graph. The vertices may be part of the graph structure, or may be external entities represented by integer indices or references. A graph data structure may also associate to each edge some edge value, such as a symbolic label or a numeric attribute (cost, capacity, length, etc.). (Wikipedia, source)
//
// GraphFactory.swift
// SwiftStructures
//
// Created by Wayne Bishop on 6/7/14.
// Copyright (c) 2014 Arbutus Software Inc. All rights reserved.
//
import Foundation
public class SwiftGraph {
//declare a default directed graph canvas
private var canvas: Array<Vertex>
public var isDirected: Bool
init() {
canvas = Array<Vertex>()
isDirected = true
}
//create a new vertex
func addVertex(key: String) -> Vertex {
//set the key
let childVertex: Vertex = Vertex()
childVertex.key = key
//add the vertex to the graph canvas
canvas.append(childVertex)
return childVertex
}
//add edge to source vertex
func addEdge(source: Vertex, neighbor: Vertex, weight: Int) {
//create a new edge
let newEdge = Edge()
//establish the default properties
newEdge.neighbor = neighbor
newEdge.weight = weight
source.neighbors.append(newEdge)
print("The neighbor of vertex: \(source.key as String!) is \(neighbor.key as String!)..")
//check condition for an undirected graph
if isDirected == false {
//create a new reversed edge
let reverseEdge = Edge()
//establish the reversed properties
reverseEdge.neighbor = source
reverseEdge.weight = weight
neighbor.neighbors.append(reverseEdge)
print("The neighbor of vertex: \(neighbor.key as String!) is \(source.key as String!)..")
}
}
/* reverse the sequence of paths given the shortest path.
process analagous to reversing a linked list. */
func reversePath(_ head: Path!, source: Vertex) -> Path! {
guard head != nil else {
return head
}
//mutated copy
var output = head
var current: Path! = output
var prev: Path!
var next: Path!
while(current != nil) {
next = current.previous
current.previous = prev
prev = current
current = next
}
//append the source path to the sequence
let sourcePath: Path = Path()
sourcePath.destination = source
sourcePath.previous = prev
sourcePath.total = nil
output = sourcePath
return output
}
//process Dijkstra's shortest path algorthim
func processDijkstra(_ source: Vertex, destination: Vertex) -> Path? {
var frontier: Array<Path> = Array<Path>()
var finalPaths: Array<Path> = Array<Path>()
//use source edges to create the frontier
for e in source.neighbors {
let newPath: Path = Path()
newPath.destination = e.neighbor
newPath.previous = nil
newPath.total = e.weight
//add the new path to the frontier
frontier.append(newPath)
}
//construct the best path
var bestPath: Path = Path()
while frontier.count != 0 {
//support path changes using the greedy approach
bestPath = Path()
var pathIndex: Int = 0
for x in 0..<frontier.count {
let itemPath: Path = frontier[x]
if (bestPath.total == nil) || (itemPath.total < bestPath.total) {
bestPath = itemPath
pathIndex = x
}
}
//enumerate the bestPath edges
for e in bestPath.destination.neighbors {
let newPath: Path = Path()
newPath.destination = e.neighbor
newPath.previous = bestPath
newPath.total = bestPath.total + e.weight
//add the new path to the frontier
frontier.append(newPath)
}
//preserve the bestPath
finalPaths.append(bestPath)
//remove the bestPath from the frontier
//frontier.removeAtIndex(pathIndex) - Swift2
frontier.remove(at: pathIndex)
} //end while
//establish the shortest path as an optional
var shortestPath: Path! = Path()
for itemPath in finalPaths {
if (itemPath.destination.key == destination.key) {
if (shortestPath.total == nil) || (itemPath.total < shortestPath.total) {
shortestPath = itemPath
}
}
}
return shortestPath
}
///an optimized version of Dijkstra's shortest path algorthim
func processDijkstraWithHeap(_ source: Vertex, destination: Vertex) -> Path! {
let frontier: PathHeap = PathHeap()
let finalPaths: PathHeap = PathHeap()
//use source edges to create the frontier
for e in source.neighbors {
let newPath: Path = Path()
newPath.destination = e.neighbor
newPath.previous = nil
newPath.total = e.weight
//add the new path to the frontier
frontier.enQueue(newPath)
}
//construct the best path
var bestPath: Path = Path()
while frontier.count != 0 {
//use the greedy approach to obtain the best path
bestPath = Path()
bestPath = frontier.peek()
//enumerate the bestPath edges
for e in bestPath.destination.neighbors {
let newPath: Path = Path()
newPath.destination = e.neighbor
newPath.previous = bestPath
newPath.total = bestPath.total + e.weight
//add the new path to the frontier
frontier.enQueue(newPath)
}
//preserve the bestPaths that match destination
if (bestPath.destination.key == destination.key) {
finalPaths.enQueue(bestPath)
}
//remove the bestPath from the frontier
frontier.deQueue()
} //end while
//obtain the shortest path from the heap
var shortestPath: Path! = Path()
shortestPath = finalPaths.peek()
return shortestPath
}
//MARK: traversal algorithms
//bfs traversal with inout closure function
func traverse(_ startingv: Vertex, formula: (_ node: inout Vertex) -> ()) {
//establish a new queue
let graphQueue: Queue<Vertex> = Queue<Vertex>()
//queue a starting vertex
graphQueue.enQueue(startingv)
while !graphQueue.isEmpty() {
//traverse the next queued vertex
var vitem: Vertex = graphQueue.deQueue() as Vertex!
//add unvisited vertices to the queue
for e in vitem.neighbors {
if e.neighbor.visited == false {
print("adding vertex: \(e.neighbor.key!) to queue..")
graphQueue.enQueue(e.neighbor)
}
}
/*
notes: this demonstrates how to invoke a closure with an inout parameter.
By passing by reference no return value is required.
*/
//invoke formula
formula(&vitem)
} //end while
print("graph traversal complete..")
}
//breadth first search
func traverse(_ startingv: Vertex) {
//establish a new queue
let graphQueue: Queue<Vertex> = Queue<Vertex>()
//queue a starting vertex
graphQueue.enQueue(startingv)
while !graphQueue.isEmpty() {
//traverse the next queued vertex
let vitem = graphQueue.deQueue() as Vertex!
guard vitem != nil else {
return
}
//add unvisited vertices to the queue
for e in vitem!.neighbors {
if e.neighbor.visited == false {
print("adding vertex: \(e.neighbor.key!) to queue..")
graphQueue.enQueue(e.neighbor)
}
}
vitem!.visited = true
print("traversed vertex: \(vitem!.key!)..")
} //end while
print("graph traversal complete..")
} //end function
//use bfs with trailing closure to update all values
func update(startingv: Vertex, formula:((Vertex) -> Bool)) {
//establish a new queue
let graphQueue: Queue<Vertex> = Queue<Vertex>()
//queue a starting vertex
graphQueue.enQueue(startingv)
while !graphQueue.isEmpty() {
//traverse the next queued vertex
let vitem = graphQueue.deQueue() as Vertex!
guard vitem != nil else {
return
}
//add unvisited vertices to the queue
for e in vitem!.neighbors {
if e.neighbor.visited == false {
print("adding vertex: \(e.neighbor.key!) to queue..")
graphQueue.enQueue(e.neighbor)
}
}
//apply formula..
if formula(vitem!) == false {
print("formula unable to update: \(vitem!.key)")
}
else {
print("traversed vertex: \(vitem!.key!)..")
}
vitem!.visited = true
} //end while
print("graph traversal complete..")
}
}
In computer science, a trie, also called digital tree and sometimes radix tree or prefix tree (as they can be searched by prefixes), is a kind of search tree—an ordered tree data structure that is used to store a dynamic set or associative array where the keys are usually strings. (Wikipedia, source)
//
// Trie.swift
// SwiftStructures
//
// Created by Wayne Bishop on 10/14/14.
// Copyright (c) 2014 Arbutus Software Inc. All rights reserved.
//
import Foundation
public class Trie {
private var root: TrieNode!
init(){
root = TrieNode()
}
//builds a tree hierarchy of dictionary content
func append(word keyword: String) {
//trivial case
guard keyword.length > 0 else {
return
}
var current: TrieNode = root
while keyword.length != current.level {
var childToUse: TrieNode!
let searchKey = keyword.substring(to: current.level + 1)
//print("current has \(current.children.count) children..")
//iterate through child nodes
for child in current.children {
if (child.key == searchKey) {
childToUse = child
break
}
}
//new node
if childToUse == nil {
childToUse = TrieNode()
childToUse.key = searchKey
childToUse.level = current.level + 1
current.children.append(childToUse)
}
current = childToUse
} //end while
//final end of word check
if (keyword.length == current.level) {
current.isFinal = true
print("end of word reached!")
return
}
} //end function
//find words based on the prefix
func search(forWord keyword: String) -> Array<String>! {
//trivial case
guard keyword.length > 0 else {
return nil
}
var current: TrieNode = root
var wordList = Array<String>()
while keyword.length != current.level {
var childToUse: TrieNode!
let searchKey = keyword.substring(to: current.level + 1)
//print("looking for prefix: \(searchKey)..")
//iterate through any child nodes
for child in current.children {
if (child.key == searchKey) {
childToUse = child
current = childToUse
break
}
}
if childToUse == nil {
return nil
}
} //end while
//retrieve the keyword and any descendants
if ((current.key == keyword) && (current.isFinal)) {
wordList.append(current.key)
}
//include only children that are words
for child in current.children {
if (child.isFinal == true) {
wordList.append(child.key)
}
}
return wordList
} //end function
}
(GitHub, source)
In computer science, a stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations: push, which adds an element to the collection, and pop, which removes the most recently added element that was not yet removed. The order in which elements come off a stack gives rise to its alternative name, LIFO (for last in, first out). Additionally, a peek operation may give access to the top without modifying the stack. (Wikipedia, source)
See license info below and original code source at (github)
//
// Stack.swift
// SwiftStructures
//
// Created by Wayne Bishop on 8/1/14.
// Copyright (c) 2014 Arbutus Software Inc. All rights reserved.
//
import Foundation
class Stack<T> {
private var top: Node<T>
init() {
top = Node<T>()
}
//the number of items - O(n)
var count: Int {
//return trivial case
guard top.key != nil else {
return 0
}
var current = top
var x: Int = 1
//cycle through list
while current.next != nil {
current = current.next!
x += 1
}
return x
}
//add item to the stack
func push(withKey key: T) {
//return trivial case
guard top.key != nil else {
top.key = key
return
}
//create new item
let childToUse = Node<T>()
childToUse.key = key
//set new created item at top
childToUse.next = top
top = childToUse
}
//remove item from the stack
func pop() {
if self.count > 1 {
top = top.next
}
else {
top.key = nil
}
}
//retrieve the top most item
func peek() -> T! {
//determine instance
if let topitem = top.key {
return topitem
}
else {
return nil
}
}
//check for value
func isEmpty() -> Bool {
if self.count == 0 {
return true
}
else {
return false
}
}
}
The MIT License (MIT)
Copyright (c) 2015, Wayne Bishop & Arbutus Software Inc.
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.