numpySimple Linear Regression

Introduction

Fitting a line (or other function) to a set of data points.

Using np.polyfit

We create a dataset that we then fit with a straight line $f(x) = m x + c$.

npoints = 20
slope = 2
offset = 3
x = np.arange(npoints)
y = slope * x + offset + np.random.normal(size=npoints)
p = np.polyfit(x,y,1)           # Last argument is degree of polynomial

To see what we've done:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
f = np.poly1d(p)                # So we can call f(x)
fig = plt.figure()
ax  = fig.add_subplot(111)
plt.plot(x, y, 'bo', label="Data")
plt.plot(x,f(x), 'b-',label="Polyfit")
plt.show()

Note: This example follows the numpy documentation at https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/generated/numpy.polyfit.html quite closely.

Using np.linalg.lstsq

We use the same dataset as with polyfit:

npoints = 20
slope = 2
offset = 3
x = np.arange(npoints)
y = slope * x + offset + np.random.normal(size=npoints)

Now, we try to find a solution by minimizing the system of linear equations A b = c by minimizing |c-A b|**2

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt # So we can plot the resulting fit
A = np.vstack([x,np.ones(npoints)]).T
m, c = np.linalg.lstsq(A, y)[0] # Don't care about residuals right now
fig = plt.figure()
ax  = fig.add_subplot(111)
plt.plot(x, y, 'bo', label="Data")
plt.plot(x, m*x+c, 'r--',label="Least Squares")
plt.show()

Note: This example follows the numpy documentation at https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/generated/numpy.linalg.lstsq.html quite closely.