Dapper.NETMultimapping

Syntax

  • public static IEnumerable<TReturn> Query<TFirst, TSecond, TReturn>( this IDbConnection cnn, string sql, Func<TFirst, TSecond, TReturn> map, object param = null, IDbTransaction transaction = null, bool buffered = true, string splitOn = "Id", int? commandTimeout = null, CommandType? commandType = null)
  • public static IEnumerable<TReturn> Query<TFirst, TSecond, TThird, TFourth, TFifth, TSixth, TSeventh, TReturn>(this IDbConnection cnn, string sql, Func<TFirst, TSecond, TThird, TFourth, TFifth, TSixth, TSeventh, TReturn> map, object param = null, IDbTransaction transaction = null, bool buffered = true, string splitOn = "Id", int? commandTimeout = null, CommandType? commandType = null)
  • public static IEnumerable<TReturn> Query<TReturn>(this IDbConnection cnn, string sql, Type[] types, Func<object[], TReturn> map, object param = null, IDbTransaction transaction = null, bool buffered = true, string splitOn = "Id", int? commandTimeout = null, CommandType? commandType = null)

Parameters

ParameterDetails
cnnYour database connection, which must already be open.
sqlCommand to execute.
typesArray of types in the record set.
mapFunc<> that handles construction of the return result.
paramObject to extract parameters from.
transactionTransaction which this query is a part of, if any.
bufferedWhether or not to buffer reading the results of the query. This is an optional parameter with the default being true. When buffered is true, the results are buffered into a List<T> and then returned as an IEnumerable<T> that is safe for multiple enumeration. When buffered is false, the sql connection is held open until you finish reading allowing you to process a single row at time in memory. Multiple enumerations will spawn additional connections to the database. While buffered false is highly efficient for reducing memory usage if you only maintain very small fragments of the records returned it has a sizeable performance overhead compared to eagerly materializing the result set. Lastly if you have numerous concurrent unbuffered sql connections you need to consider connection pool starvation causing requests to block until connections become available.
splitOnThe Field we should split and read the second object from (default: id). This can be a comma delimited list when more than 1 type is contained in a record.
commandTimeoutNumber of seconds before command execution timeout.
commandTypeIs it a stored proc or a batch?

Simple multi-table mapping

Let's say we have a query of the remaining horsemen that needs to populate a Person class.

NameBornResidence
Daniel Dennett1942United States of America
Sam Harris1967United States of America
Richard Dawkins1941United Kingdom
public class Person
{
    public string Name { get; set; }
    public int Born { get; set; }
    public Country Residience { get; set; }
}

public class Country
{
    public string Residence { get; set; }
}

We can populate the person class as well as the Residence property with an instance of Country using an overload Query<> that takes a Func<> that can be used to compose the returned instance. The Func<> can take up to 7 input types with the final generic argument always being the return type.

var sql = @"SELECT 'Daniel Dennett' AS Name, 1942 AS Born, 'United States of America' AS Residence
UNION ALL SELECT 'Sam Harris' AS Name, 1967 AS Born, 'United States of America' AS Residence
UNION ALL SELECT 'Richard Dawkins' AS Name, 1941 AS Born, 'United Kingdom' AS Residence";

var result = connection.Query<Person, Country, Person>(sql, (person, country) => {
        if(country == null)
        {
            country = new Country { Residence = "" };
        }
        person.Residience = country;
        return person;
    }, 
    splitOn: "Residence");

Note the use of the splitOn: "Residence" argument which is the 1st column of the next class type to be populated (in this case Country). Dapper will automatically look for a column called Id to split on but if it does not find one and splitOn is not provided a System.ArgumentException will be thrown with a helpful message. So although it is optional you will usually have to supply a splitOn value.

One-to-many mapping

Let's look at a more complex example that contains a one-to-many relationship. Our query will now contain multiple rows containing duplicate data and we will need to handle this. We do this with a lookup in a closure.

The query changes slightly as do the example classes.

IdNameBornCountryIdCountryNameBookIdBookName
1Daniel Dennett19421United States of America1Brainstorms
1Daniel Dennett19421United States of America2Elbow Room
2Sam Harris19671United States of America3The Moral Landscape
2Sam Harris19671United States of America4Waking Up: A Guide to Spirituality Without Religion
3Richard Dawkins19412United Kingdom5The Magic of Reality: How We Know What`s Really True
3Richard Dawkins19412United Kingdom6An Appetite for Wonder: The Making of a Scientist
public class Person
{
    public int Id { get; set; }
    public string Name { get; set; }
    public int Born { get; set; }
    public Country Residience { get; set; }
    public ICollection<Book> Books { get; set; }
}

public class Country
{
    public int CountryId { get; set; }
    public string CountryName { get; set; }
}

public class Book
{
    public int BookId { get; set; }
    public string BookName { get; set; }
}

The dictionaryremainingHorsemen will be populated with fully materialized instances of the person objects. For each row of the query result the mapped values of instances of the types defined in the lambda arguments are passed in and it is up to you how to handle this.

            var sql = @"SELECT 1 AS Id, 'Daniel Dennett' AS Name, 1942 AS Born, 1 AS CountryId, 'United States of America' AS CountryName, 1 AS BookId, 'Brainstorms' AS BookName
UNION ALL SELECT 1 AS Id, 'Daniel Dennett' AS Name, 1942 AS Born, 1 AS CountryId, 'United States of America' AS CountryName, 2 AS BookId, 'Elbow Room' AS BookName
UNION ALL SELECT 2 AS Id, 'Sam Harris' AS Name, 1967 AS Born, 1 AS CountryId,  'United States of America' AS CountryName, 3 AS BookId, 'The Moral Landscape' AS BookName
UNION ALL SELECT 2 AS Id, 'Sam Harris' AS Name, 1967 AS Born, 1 AS CountryId,  'United States of America' AS CountryName, 4 AS BookId, 'Waking Up: A Guide to Spirituality Without Religion' AS BookName
UNION ALL SELECT 3 AS Id, 'Richard Dawkins' AS Name, 1941 AS Born, 2 AS CountryId,  'United Kingdom' AS CountryName, 5 AS BookId, 'The Magic of Reality: How We Know What`s Really True' AS BookName
UNION ALL SELECT 3 AS Id, 'Richard Dawkins' AS Name, 1941 AS Born, 2 AS CountryId,  'United Kingdom' AS CountryName, 6 AS BookId, 'An Appetite for Wonder: The Making of a Scientist' AS BookName";

var remainingHorsemen = new Dictionary<int, Person>();
connection.Query<Person, Country, Book, Person>(sql, (person, country, book) => {
    //person
    Person personEntity;
    //trip
    if (!remainingHorsemen.TryGetValue(person.Id, out personEntity))
    {
        remainingHorsemen.Add(person.Id, personEntity = person);
    }

    //country
    if(personEntity.Residience == null)
    {
        if (country == null)
        {
            country = new Country { CountryName = "" };
        }
        personEntity.Residience = country;
    }                    

    //books
    if(personEntity.Books == null)
    {
        personEntity.Books = new List<Book>();
    }

    if (book != null)
    {
        if (!personEntity.Books.Any(x => x.BookId == book.BookId))
        {
            personEntity.Books.Add(book);
        }
    }

    return personEntity;
}, 
splitOn: "CountryId,BookId");

Note how the splitOn argument is a comma delimited list of the first columns of the next type.

Mapping more than 7 types

Sometimes the number of types you are mapping exceeds the 7 provided by the Func<> that does the construction.

Instead of using the Query<> with the generic type argument inputs, we will provide the types to map to as an array, followed by the mapping function. Other than the initial manual setting and casting of the values, the rest of the function does not change.

            var sql = @"SELECT 1 AS Id, 'Daniel Dennett' AS Name, 1942 AS Born, 1 AS CountryId, 'United States of America' AS CountryName, 1 AS BookId, 'Brainstorms' AS BookName
UNION ALL SELECT 1 AS Id, 'Daniel Dennett' AS Name, 1942 AS Born, 1 AS CountryId, 'United States of America' AS CountryName, 2 AS BookId, 'Elbow Room' AS BookName
UNION ALL SELECT 2 AS Id, 'Sam Harris' AS Name, 1967 AS Born, 1 AS CountryId,  'United States of America' AS CountryName, 3 AS BookId, 'The Moral Landscape' AS BookName
UNION ALL SELECT 2 AS Id, 'Sam Harris' AS Name, 1967 AS Born, 1 AS CountryId,  'United States of America' AS CountryName, 4 AS BookId, 'Waking Up: A Guide to Spirituality Without Religion' AS BookName
UNION ALL SELECT 3 AS Id, 'Richard Dawkins' AS Name, 1941 AS Born, 2 AS CountryId,  'United Kingdom' AS CountryName, 5 AS BookId, 'The Magic of Reality: How We Know What`s Really True' AS BookName
UNION ALL SELECT 3 AS Id, 'Richard Dawkins' AS Name, 1941 AS Born, 2 AS CountryId,  'United Kingdom' AS CountryName, 6 AS BookId, 'An Appetite for Wonder: The Making of a Scientist' AS BookName";

var remainingHorsemen = new Dictionary<int, Person>();
connection.Query<Person>(sql,
    new[]
    {
        typeof(Person),
        typeof(Country),
        typeof(Book)
    }
    , obj => {

        Person person = obj[0] as Person;
        Country country = obj[1] as Country;
        Book book = obj[2] as Book;

        //person
        Person personEntity;
        //trip
        if (!remainingHorsemen.TryGetValue(person.Id, out personEntity))
        {
            remainingHorsemen.Add(person.Id, personEntity = person);
        }

        //country
        if(personEntity.Residience == null)
        {
            if (country == null)
            {
                country = new Country { CountryName = "" };
            }
            personEntity.Residience = country;
        }                    

        //books
        if(personEntity.Books == null)
        {
            personEntity.Books = new List<Book>();
        }

        if (book != null)
        {
            if (!personEntity.Books.Any(x => x.BookId == book.BookId))
            {
                personEntity.Books.Add(book);
            }
        }

        return personEntity;
},
splitOn: "CountryId,BookId");

Custom Mappings

If the query column names do not match your classes you can setup mappings for types. This example demonstrates mapping using System.Data.Linq.Mapping.ColumnAttributeas well as a custom mapping.

The mappings only need to be setup once per type so set them on application startup or somewhere else that they are only initialized once.

Assuming the same query as the One-to-many example again and the classes refactored toward better names like so:

public class Person
{
    public int Id { get; set; }
    public string Name { get; set; }
    public int Born { get; set; }
    public Country Residience { get; set; }
    public ICollection<Book> Books { get; set; }
}

public class Country
{
    [System.Data.Linq.Mapping.Column(Name = "CountryId")]
    public int Id { get; set; }

    [System.Data.Linq.Mapping.Column(Name = "CountryName")]
    public string Name { get; set; }
}

public class Book
{
    public int Id { get; set; }

    public string Name { get; set; }
}

Note how Book doesn't rely on ColumnAttribute but we would need to maintain the if statement

Now place this mapping code somewhere in your application where it is only executed once:

Dapper.SqlMapper.SetTypeMap(
    typeof(Country),
    new CustomPropertyTypeMap(
        typeof(Country),
        (type, columnName) =>
            type.GetProperties().FirstOrDefault(prop =>
                prop.GetCustomAttributes(false)
                    .OfType<System.Data.Linq.Mapping.ColumnAttribute>()
                    .Any(attr => attr.Name == columnName)))
);


var bookMap = new CustomPropertyTypeMap(
    typeof(Book),
    (type, columnName) =>
    {
        if(columnName == "BookId")
        {
            return type.GetProperty("Id");
        }

        if (columnName == "BookName")
        {
            return type.GetProperty("Name");
        }

        throw new InvalidOperationException($"No matching mapping for {columnName}");
    }        
);
Dapper.SqlMapper.SetTypeMap(typeof(Book), bookMap);

Then the query is executed using any of the previous Query<> examples.

A simpler way of adding the mappings is shown in this answer.